Saturday July 26th 2014

How long does tramadol withdrawal last?

A few days to several months.

Thinking about stopping tramadol?

Tramadol is analgesic (pain killer) that is part of the opiate family prescribed for moderate/moderately severe pain or to help heroin addicts with withdrawal. However, pain killing medications like tramadol can trigger physical dependence on tramadol.  In fact, tramadol tolerance symptoms may occur within a few weeks of regular dose.

Withdrawal from tramadol is likely to occur in anyone who gradually comes off tramadol as well as those who suddenly decide to stop taking tramadol. So when you’ve decided to stop taking tramadol  – what can you expect?  For example, tramadol symptoms how long?

In general, tramadol withdrawal occurs within a few hours after tramadol effects wear off. And the length of time until withdrawal stops can vary from weeks to months later. More here on how long tramadol withdrawal lasts, with a section for your questions about tramadol at the end.

How long until tramadol withdrawal starts?

Once you have decided to stop taking tramadol, withdrawal symptoms can start as early as a few hours after the effect of tramadol has worn off. In fact, people who forget to take their tramadol have reported feeling nervous, anxious, feeling of pins and needles, sweating, and palpitations only a few hours after their next dose. The most common symptoms of withdrawal from tramadol include:

  • craving tramadol
  • flu-like symptoms
  • insomnia
  • muscle cramps
  • seating
  • serotonin syndrome
  • restlessness

How long do tramadol withdrawal symptoms last?

Symptoms of tramadol withdrawal can last anywhere between a few days to several months after you last take the medication. The harsher, acute effects of withdrawal should resolve within after about a month. However, emotions of irritability, cravings, and depression are still something that you may have to deal with for a while after the tramadol is out of your system. Drug craving for tramadol is another difficult long lasting symptom to deal with.

Tramadol withdrawal timeline

Tramadol affects people differently. However, people with opiate addiction or higher dependency will have a harsher time coming off of tramadol. Symptoms of withdrawing from tramadol happen in two categories:

1. Nervousness, anxiety, nausea, and diarrhea

2. Hallucinations, paranoia, extreme anxiety, panic attacks, confusion and numbness

Serotonin syndrome is another potential withdrawal symptom and can be quite dangerous so it is important that you have someone monitor your withdrawal. Serotonin syndrome can occur in some who are withdrawing from tramadol, If you are using other substances or medications, serotonin syndrome is a serious issue which can increase your blood pressure, induce hallucinations, paranoia, and confusion. If it has gotten to this point, hospitalization is recommended so that you can be monitored over a 24hr period and given the appropriate remedies.

Following is a general tramadol withdrawal timeline outlining common symptoms for the days to weeks after you stop taking tramadol.

24-72 hours tramadol withdrawal – General onset of symptoms can manifest shortly after the drug has worn off and linger for up to a few months after the medication is totally out of the system. Nervousness, anxiety, feeling of pins and needles, sweating, palpitations and the unease are the first signs of withdrawal. Drug craving is another symptom of withdrawal.

Week 1 tramadol withdrawal – In the first week after stopping Tramadol, symptoms of withdrawal tend to even out with an apparent return to “normalcy”, although drug craving occurs and insomnia is common. During this phase of withdrawal, symptoms can include disorientation, blurred vision, and dilated pupils.

Week 2 tramadol withdrawal – After the first couple of weeks of stopping Tramadol, characteristic symptoms of opiate withdrawal may still be present including Serotonin syndrome, depression, irrational feelings, anxiety.

Weeks 3-4 tramadol withdrawal – During this phase of withdrawal, apathy, irritability, and depression may still be present. Additionally, long periods or disturbances in sleep are still reported.

Tramadol withdrawal: how long?

Tramadol affects each person differently depending on the dosage and how long you have been taking tramadol. In other words, each withdrawal period is unique to the person taking tramadol. Various health concerns need to be taken into consideration. In general, however, if you’re taking tramadol you need to be careful of its physical dependency.

How long Tramadol withdrawal questions

If you have any more questions regarding withdrawal from tramadol please ask. We do our best to respond to your questions personally and promptly.

Reference Sources: Drug Enforcement Administration: Tramadol
American Journal of Psychiatry: Withdrawal Syndrome After Delayed Tramadol Intake
Toxicology Data Network: Tramadol
PubMed Health: Tramadol

Photo credit: Dave Stokes

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33 Responses to “How long does tramadol withdrawal last?
Tammy
11:13 am October 23rd, 2012

Is There Any Medication That Can Help With The Withdrawel Symptoms?

8:11 am October 24th, 2012

Hello Tammy. Clonidine may be a safe and effective option for managing symptoms of tramadol withdrawal.

And keep in mind that the best way to quit tramadol is to work with a doctor and have him or her gradually taper you off the medication. Tramadol can cause symptoms atypical of other opioids, which can include seizures and Serotonin Syndrome. Tapering tramadol doses helps your body regulate and can decrease the intensity of tramadol withdrawal symptoms. The timeline for tapering tramadol doses can be several weeks long.

keekee
12:42 am December 8th, 2012

Thank you for posting this information… Honestly, I have searched and searched for a site that would give accurate information to how long it will take to get through this.
I’ve been on tramadol for almost 5 years for a slipped disc and I’ve been trying to get off it for a few months now. I stopped cold turkey almost 4 days ago and luckily after the first time I tried to stop, the doctor prescribed clonidine so I had that on hand. Also, I recently started to take neurotin for nerve pain. I’ve only had very minimal withdrawal symptoms this time around. The 1st time I thought I would die… It was the most awful 2 days of my life. This time I’ve had only moderate symptoms, such as a mild stomach pain and a little restless at night. I stumbled on this site because I want to know what I can plan for… I’ve read that some people have had withdrawal symptoms for months, but I couldn’t find a timeline to correspond with what they had gone through. I’ve noticed that, especially this evening, that I am very moody and wondering if I should find a doctor who might specialize in addiction problems to prescribe an anti-depressant to help with the moodiness. I don’t know if the neurotin has helped, but I know the last time I stopped cold turkey it was awful and this time I’m able to function, go to work, and do the basic necessities at home. I’m not 100%, but I’m hoping to just get through the next couple days and turn the corner.

8:28 pm December 8th, 2012

Hi keekee. Thanks for sharing more about your experiences with tramadol. I wish you the best of success during withdrawal. And be sure to monitor potential signs of seizure. This atypical symptom presents in people with no prior history of seizures as they come off tramadol.

RUTH
10:32 pm January 7th, 2013

I was prescribed 100mg 4 times daily for advanced degenerative discs and a bulging disc,however i usually only took them twice per day.They were extremely effective immediately and i had much more energy than before.However i was unable to get to sleep at night but hoped that this very unpleasant side effect would ease as i got used to them…It did not so i decided after around five months to quit cold turkey.That was almost three months ago and i have still barely slept since stopping them.I have felt overwhelmed with exhaustion/depression as i work full time and more.All that has kept me going is my faith in the Lord Jesus Christ and prayer from fellow believers.

1:36 pm January 10th, 2013

Hi Ruth. Thanks for sharing about what’s going on with you. Insomnia is absolutely exhausting. Problems getting and staying asleep may be related to physical problems or to psychological stress. Have you tried working with a sleep specialist to learn more about the condition and how you can treat it? Sleep is a gift, and one that we need!

Leah
2:05 am March 27th, 2013

After 3 long yrs of being physically & mentally depedant on tramadol (& all the ups & downs of running out, being so sick w/ wd’s that i couldn’t function & going right back on it time after time after only a few days) ……I was lucky enough to find a dr. who helped me do an effective taper w/clonidine. I am glad to say the madness of this whole ordeal is behnd me. I did a month long taper from taking @ least 800 mg daily & am now 12 days clean and doing ok. I am on a new (expensive!) RX non-addictive sleep med to use as needed so i am getting some sleep – but i still wake up every morning @ 3:30am. i have had horrible cold symptoms for 3 wks that no amount of OTC allergy meds will touch. My energy is not so good and i am always tired and sleepy…..this week is better than last week – and i have no thoughts of returning to tram bc it is not an option period. i don’t want it – don’t have any and won’t go to the effort to get in bc i have spent 3 yrs and 6 mo’s of hell i will not repeat for anything. i have a VERY supportive husband who has been w/me every step of the way & i am so grateful for this. My question is: WHEN will i not have to take a 3 hr nap every day? When will my motivation & endurance/vibrance return? I have occasional bouts still w/gastritis – but treat as needed w/imodium conservatively. While i am grateful i feel better this week – i thought this wk (12 days out) i would be gettting back to my old self – and i just don’t seem to be bouncing back. I didn’t GET here over night and i won’t get back overnight – but i feel like i have been in a tailspin of doing nothing but laying around since i began tapering 6 wks ago! Am i expecting too much too soon??? Discouraged – but not giving up by any means…. thanks!

case
1:25 am April 17th, 2013

i still insomnia 75 days after stopping tramadol for nerve damage ill only sleep 3 to five hours aday without any naps any idea how long this my go on before this perscription i feel asleep within ten to fifteen minuts most of the time now it takes 1 to three hours all the time

marvin
12:01 am April 19th, 2013

wow, i thought the worst of this would be over im 25 days ct, i was taking sometimes 25 tabs daily, and ordering 180 online weekly under assumed names,the 1st 2 weeks were pure hell, no sleep whatsoever, and the cold symptoms that no over the counter med helps….

marvin
12:03 am April 19th, 2013

my biggest side effect currently is absolutely no sleep, this medicine is the worst out there…..toxic

Mel
12:33 am May 23rd, 2013

I was on hydrocodone for 5 yrs and than suboxone for 3 than I got off of it and 4 days later I broke 2 ribs in a car accident so ya they have me hydrocodone I took that for bout 2 weeks than decided to quit completely …. I started to take tramadol to get off hydrocodone and I took tramadol for 3 weeks just 50mg 3 times a day…. So I quit taking it yesterday morning I’m on day 2 and I’m feeling the withdrawls really bad… I feel like my body is being electrocuted …. My legs won’t stop moving at night… Since I haven’t been taking tramdol for very long does anyone have an idea about how long the wds will last for me???? Someone please help!!!! Ty

Sanchez
4:58 am July 26th, 2013

Hi to all . I have been taking tramdol for 3 years. I had 3 knee sugeys . Did not want to take the lortab or norco cuz growing up my dad was addicted to those meds. But I decided to stop taking tramdol last year and the WD started so I went online and got them overnited. The WD where bad. But now I said to myself I am going to stop. And I am on day 5And it is getting better. But not out of the woods yet.

Day one threw three was the worse . Had every system you see on here. But on day 4 I had to go to the ER . I thought I was going to have a seziure. I was shaking my hands and legs like crazy. The doc kept on asking me if I was taking something else , I guess he thought that tramdol couldn’t do this to someone. After a urine test and 5 hours later. He gave me a script for clonidine.
It took about 3 pills for it to work . But I am guessing it did. Or I am on the down hill slide now.
But this is a blood pressure med. so u need to watch out how I take it. Tonite I am not going to take it . And see how it goes . I hope fore the best.
There is a lot more I can add , but it is about the same thing everyone else has said. If any one has any questions plz ask. And tell ppl about this drug. I have been.
Take care and plz be strong. And for some reason u fall back don’t give up. Just get back up and try agine.

Red
3:07 pm August 1st, 2013

I was starting to think I was alone in all this. I was taking Tramadol for 7 years starting at 100mg 3-4 times per day after I was in a car accident that caused disc injury in my neck. Sometime last year after moving and getting a new doc who wanted me to try a smaller dosage I stepped back to 100 mg 3 times a day. I have always known that it was more addictive then Dr.s say as I would be bed ridden if God forbid I forgot to fill my prescription and missed a day. I took it upon myself to get off it. In other words, I was an idiot and did not consult with my Dr…. About 3 months ago I started slowly tapering off until 3 weeks ago I took my last 1/2 50mg pill. It was awful, pain, depression, anxiety, pain, restlessness, did I mention pain? What seems to have not lessened is my digestive issues. With tramadol I accepted the challenges it causes in digestion and always took Probiotics to help. Now since stopping I am so bloated and hate to travel too far from a bathroom its getting crazy. I have always been thin, so looking like I am 4 months pregnat is not fun either. What concerns me most is how long this will last, and was there damage done by being on it for so long. No matter what I REFUSE to take it again. Yes I have neck pain, but I can’t go backwards at this point.

Jean philpot
9:19 pm August 20th, 2013

I have been off of tramadol now for a couple of weeks. I still deal,with aches and insomnia. I know I have anxiety about it, but now I am seeing a spike in my blood pressure. Is this a normal,symptom? It really has me worried.

Tina
3:56 pm August 21st, 2013

Hi I am a 36 year old mom of two children, who was perfectly happy, bubbly, outgoing before I started using prescription medication. I had to go onto tramadol 400mg a day and pregablin 75mg 3x a day for severe back problems, I had an operation in may this year and on the 31st may my doctors took me off both these medications “cold turkey”. Since then my life has been hell I suffered loads of withdrawal symptoms, sickness, dioareah, fear, severe depression, anxiety, nervousness, aliens in head, skin crawling, sweating etc etc.my doctor denied it was withdrawal. It’s now August and i still suffer depression, anxiety and nervousness, is this normal as I’m fed up of feeling like this and want to be back to the person I was. My doctor now has me sertraline 100mg for depression and 2mg diazipam 3x a day to keep me calm, this is not working and any advice would be great.

5:08 pm August 21st, 2013

Hello Tina. I’m so sorry to hear about your experiences. Have you consulted to get a second opinion. The symptoms that you report are very much like withdrawal related to opioids. Can you see another doctor?

c. harrelson
10:22 pm August 26th, 2013

I am on 150mg tramadol per day for 2 yrs. If I cut 25mg off every 3 weeks, should withdrawal be less?

4:05 am August 27th, 2013

Hello c. harrelson. Yes, tapering doses of tramadol should address the severity of withdrawal symptoms. But you’ll need a tapering calendar set up by a prescribing doctor so that you can together monitor the symptoms and do what’s best for you.

Tina
2:33 pm August 28th, 2013

Hi thanks for the reply, my doctor has now restarted lycria 50mg three times a day to see if it helps, nervousness is still there, will this help with an opioid withdrawal or will I need something more, also how much longer is this likey to last as stated before I want my life back.

Sammy
2:03 am January 7th, 2014

Hi all,
I’ve been also trying to find a rough answer on how long it takes before this awful drug will be out of my system. I was taking it for a little over a year for moderate to severe back, neck & shoulder pain which I had suffered with for approximately 15 years but never really using pain meds to control it (I’m 42 now), also this had a knock on effect of fatigue plus bouts of depression at the worst times as functioning in everyday life was just done on pure will power most times.
A friend of mine was prescribed them after a pretty bad abcess which he had to have surgery for.. Seeing the state I was in he gave me a couple and I couldn’t believe the relief they gave me. So I asked my GP for them, he put me on repeat prescription, 100 a month as and when I needed. Sometimes 4, 6 or 8 a day 50mg. At first I was in heaven, almost no pain and increased energy. I expressed the usual concerns of long term painkillers, what they would be doing to my insides, dependency and so on. He dismissed it all and said they were ‘fine to be on for long periods and lots of people are’. I was dubious to say the least but not being in pain daily was all that mattered at that time.
Fast forward a year and it’s been 4 weeks since I stopped, I gradually started taking less as they were making me feel much worse than the pain I was originally in. Fatigue was worse than ever, headaches pretty much 24/7, chronic sweating, insomnia, loss of appetite and sex drive, rage, mood swings, feelings of worthlessness, depression, restless leg, lack of interest in doing anything except what I needed to do – mainly work, go home, watch tv, bed, and sleep if I was lucky.
The night sweats are now coming to an end thankfully (plus the ever so embarrassing armpit daily sweats, which I’ve never suffered with in my life before now). I still have dull headaches a lot of the time and the anxiety & mood swings, mini bouts of depression are still occurring but thankfully seem to be lessening, although today was pretty bad.
As I was on pretty large doses for a year I fear it may take a while longer before I’m rid of them.
I recently had injections into my spine to test whether the specialist I saw was correct in thinking the main cause of my pain was arthritis of the facet joints. Unfortunately I don’t think it worked too well and the next step is more injections which burn away the nerve endings. I won’t be going ahead with it I’m pretty sure as the tests weren’t positive enough.
On a final note, 2 weeks ago I was googling around and by chance stumbled onto a few natural anti inflammattories, one called Boswellia and the other being an enzyme callee Serrapeptase. I am by no way affiliated with these products nor am I claiming they will work but in 2 wks of taking the Serrapeptase (I haven’t tried Boswellia yet so I could tell which, if any, might be working) my pain has reduced by at least 50% and my energy levels are so much better. Without babbling on too much more they have been used for around 40 years now and are reported to calm inflammation, eat away dead tissue and also scar tissue, plus a whole other range of health benefits.
Anybody suffering long term pain please go and read up on them for yourself, it could work for you as it has for me. Don’t expect to take 2 and feel ok, it may take a week or it may take several. Best taken 90 minutes before or after food as they need to get through the stomach and into the small intestine and into the bloodstream where they can start to do their thing.
From now on I’ll be treating any ailments naturally, do the research, it’s all there to be found online. Prescription drugs ruined over a year of my life and I hope I am never in a position where I need them ever again.
I hope my pain continues to lessen, if after 2 weeks the improvement I feel keeps on going I’ll be one happy guy and if any of you guys on here give them a try & get any benefit from them I’d love to hear about it. I wish you all the best.

ScottP
5:16 am January 26th, 2014

I give anyone tremendous credit for deciding to break free of the Tramadol dependency. I have been off them now for 13 days! The first 3 to 4 days are the absolute worst of the withdrawl. The worst seemed to be the almost constant dizziness, tingling sensations and extreme lethargy but inability to sleep much. All I can say is after the first 4 days you should be passed the toughest part. At nearly 2 weeks though I thought I’d be completely back to normal after being on 150-250mg for about 2yrs, but I’m still having insomnia and low energy and emotional apathy that comes and goes. The dizziness keeps coming back but now only lingers for a couple minutes instead of hours. Physical exercise does seem to help even though it is about the last thing I “feel” like doing. The best info I’ve obtained on this med seem to indicate that it is normal to expect there annoying more long term aspects to last for up to a few months after getting off of this med. it definitely behaves very similar to anti-depressant medication cessation from what I read also. Funny that by comparison I stopped Percocet (oxycodone) cold turkey and that was physically and mentally much worse w/d symptoms that actually got exponentially more unbearable each passing day but after 5 days I was completely back to normal and by contrast the Tramadol w/d as awful as it was did get a little easier each passing day but definitely hangs around much longer. God’s blessing upon all of you & DONT give up!!!

christy
12:17 am February 5th, 2014

I took tramadol (50m) for 4 nights (for knee pain that was inferring with my sleep). My last dose was 10 nights ago. I stopped taking it because I had an awful reaction to it – I felt like a drug was coursing through my body and left my veins feeling icy-hot creeping on my legs, shoulders, back, and chest. Currently, my shins and feet tingle badly (worse at rest and at night), and yesterday my arms started tingling too. Is this normal for being off of it for 9 days and only have takin in for four nights? How long can I anticipate it lasting? Thank you so much for your comments!

Nic
1:14 am February 18th, 2014

I’ve been taking only 50 mgs a day for about a month and. Now I have completely stopped. My last one was yesterday morning around 7am. I’m ok right now what is there to expect!
?

Luna
3:43 am February 19th, 2014

The withdrawals from this drug are worse than any pain you are currently going through. I was given this drug for a pain I had in my arm 4 years ago and am trying to clean this evil devil drug out of my system. Reading what others have gone through has really helped. I realize that I’m not going to die from this and anything I am feeling will pass. You do though have to be so sick of this devil that you are strong enough to let it go. It’s call, it’s need is so great that you have to be ready to shut the voice out and take your life back. I have tried so many times to stop but the depression and the pain in your whole body and soul is so bad that the voice tells you to just take one. When you are ready, I promise, the depression is not that bad. When your ready the pain is bearable. You are stronger than this voice. Your freedom from this devil for your life is worth it. Your soul, the soul that God has given you can only experience this world through a strong healthy body.
i have had 3 children and these withdrawals are a lot like being pregnant in the last few days before you deliver without the beautiful payoff (at least for me). Your whole body aches, you can’t sleep, there is no position that is comfortable. You are so frustrated and miserable and you just want it to stop. You have to remember that 100′s of people go through this every day and the pain passes. This will too. Don’t give up, stay strong. You will make it out the other side. I promise!

DrRae
2:18 am April 19th, 2014

In January my 13 year old daughter was given Tramadol for her almost daily headaches. After taking it and Zoloft for about 2 weeks she woke up in the middle of the night one night screaming “make them stop, make them stop”. She was having auditory hallucinations of people screaming her name and screaming other things that she couldn’t quite make out the words; as if many people in a crowd. At the same time she was having visual hallucinations of cobwebs in the corners of the room and bugs everywhere and the movement of air that she describes as spirits moving, for lack of a better description.

cynthia
2:20 am May 1st, 2014

My experience with tramadol has been horrible, I took it for just 3days and it was a total of 800mg but now it’s hell coming of a drug I took for just 3days,I have been off tramadol for 5days now but am still experiencing palpitations, diarrhoea, and I hv nt been able to sleep for days, my question is, how long will it take for the withdrawal symptoms to be over since I toook it for just 3days plsss

SM
1:52 am May 23rd, 2014

I was prescribed 300 mg a day for 6 mo. For 6 days I tried tappering myself, i became deathly ill. I finally and thankfully checked intoa detox facility where I Spent 5 days and was medically detoxed. Best decision I made! It has been 5 days since I left detox and I still feel like I go in and out of full detox. Day 5, today, has been the worst. I’m sweating, cold, tingly and in pain. Seriously, I am not kidding. In 2006 I got off of heroine and I experienced nothing like this. I’m clean and sober and asked the doctor for a safe NON-NARCOTIC. I got the opposite. So upset. :(

JJ
2:07 pm May 25th, 2014

I was prescribed Tramadol 5 years ago to help me deal with nerve pain related to a broken neck and to help me give up opioids which I previously used for several years for this pain. I completely stopped taking the six-50 mg pills per day of Tramadol 4 weeks ago tapering off about one week prior. So what have been my withdrawal symptoms? Immediate Upper respiratory distress…I have asthma so I had to use my inhaler constantly (something I’ve not had to do for many years). I had to stay out of work during the first 3 days because I simply was too physically ill to be there having flu like-cold like symptoms. I also got chills that started in my head and worked their way slowly down my chest, arms, legs causing me to get goose bumps. These chills happened every very few hours at first and after four weeks has tapered down now to once every few days. I had diarrhea and still do. I have hallucinations at night. Ive felt anxious and like I have no place to belong… No real attachment… Even to those who love me. The worst part of this is that I go from happy to almost suicidally depressed in minute even after four weeks. I will be seeking other ways to survive the pain. But obviously these issues are going to be with me for awhile so I’m hoping this damage is not permanent.

JJ
2:36 am June 1st, 2014

I wrote on May 25. It is now May 31. I spent last weekend going through the chills again! With those chills that occurred at night was a vivid hallucination of being in the water drowning. My mood the following day went from upbeat while visiting with my family to suddenly becoming suicidally depressed and sullen. I have not had problems with depression in twenty years prior. The psychosocial and psychological effects of the drug while I was taking it are becoming clear to me now. The mood swings are powerful and fast during withdrawal. So now, after weeks on this roller coaster, I feel, for the first time in years …calm. The electricity under my skin, anxiousness, anxiety and moodiness has simply disappeared. It’s been five weeks from the time I stopped the drug completely. It’s been hell to say the least. I was much better off with the opioid medication which I took for years prior to Tramadol. I will not return to either. There has to be a better way. My body is now in full pain mode and I feel the mask the drug provided to be completely removed. Cherished my stability to sleep and this drug let me sleep, the pain does not allow for sleep but the waking hours while on this drug became filled with emotion and led to me wanting to isolate myself from everyone. The other side effect of withdrawal is weight gain. The drug stole my desire to eat and now another adjustment to see my appetite return. I am happy to be free of it. If you have pain, find another way as Tramodol cannot be the answer unless you want to go insane.

kitty
11:13 pm June 6th, 2014

I took 1 tramadol pill 50 mg last night. I felt horrible and I still feel somewhat bad. When will I feel better? Yuck!

angela
10:36 am June 30th, 2014

How long does the pins and needles last after stopping tramadol? I’ve had them up my right foot and leg since Saturday

Jason
6:55 am July 1st, 2014

Serotonin syndrome is not from tramadol wd. It can happen when you are on tramadol and take other serotonergics drugs.

Kay
3:33 pm July 24th, 2014

I’ve almost got to week 2 of Tramadol Freedom. Tapered down. 3 mths up to 100mgs twice daily. It’s still difficult. Tingly, insomnia, irritability. I understand this may take awhile. …….Transition to tram.from 9 mths of percocet dependence 5/325, 2-3 daily

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